There were not 100,000, there were not 50,000, there were not 30,000 — there were 20,000. The expression, 'nits make lice,' was used by the soldiers to justify the murder of infants. The depositions alleged that women and children were massacred by the Irish during the 1641 rebellion, but the digitization of the depositions, researchers say, reveals new truths. He remained for three days. The … The Irish — who were unarmed — marched between files of English soldiers into the rath.But none of them ever returned. 'At Drogheda,' says Mr. Lecky, 'there had been no pretence of a massacre and a large proportion of the garrison were English.' A group of academics has been tasked to reinvestigate a centuries-old massacre of Protestants in Ireland. They planned to seize Dublin Castle and other strongpoints around the country and then to issue demands for free practice of the Catholic religion, equal rights for Catholics to hold public office and an end to land confiscations. Some of the Irish priests, and Jesuits, were especially conspicuous for these acts of Christian mercy, hiding terrified suppliants under the altar cloths, and striving to stop the bloodshed at the risk of their own lives. At first, there were beatings and robbing of local settlers who lived on land taken from the Irish Catholics by force of arms, then house burnings and expulsions and finally killings. It is possible, indeed, that a people, in defending their own territory, may commit excesses; and for these excesses they must stand at the Bar of History. Not only the men, but even the women and children who fell into the hands of the English were deliberately and systematically butchered. English and Scotch colonists were brought in to occupy the richest parts of the soil. -- History Publisher London Murray Collection robarts; … The so-called 1641 rebellion actually lasted for almost ten years, spreading to other areas of Ireland when the native Irish of Ulster were joined in revolt by their Old English co-religionists. The respected Ulster historian Dr A T Q Stewart once said that ’The 1641 rebellion is perhaps the most important episode in the history of Ulster since the plantation, yet it is one of the least discussed.’ However, while there is considerable justification in affording importance to such short term factors, long-standing grievances associated with the Ulster Plantation remain a primary factor too. The Rebellion of 1641 was a continuance of the war waged by the Irish not only to defend their land, but to preserve the very existence of their race. Instead, short term factors are stressed. A Catholic Archbishop fell into the hands of the English authorities, and before they sent him to the gallows they tortured him to extort a confession of treason by one of the most horrible torments human nature can endure — by roasting his feet with fire. Parliament itself stimulated the butcheries of the soldiers. Finally, the numbers of fugitives increased to 2,000, and these, then, continued their march to Dublin, accompanied by a rebel guard of 200. It is notorious, that wherever the rebels were led by competent commanders, outrages were rarely, if ever, committed. This is a sentiment which we can all admire. University language experts have been given a grant of £334,000 to pore over thousands of witness accounts of massacres following the 1641 rebellion. At last, as the mob swelled to larger dimensions, the guard was rushed, and the refugees plundered:—. That is a vital point to be borne in mind in considering the ethics of the question. The slaughter of the inhabitants of Drogheda and Wexford are as indelibly imprinted on the psyche of Irish Catholics as the previous massacres in Ulster are on Protestants. The 1641 Depositions constitute the chief evidence for the sharply contested allegation that the 1641 rebellion began with a general massacre of protestant settlers and as a result they have been central to the most protracted and bitter of Irish historical controversies. 1641 rebellion, memory and history, Northern Ireland, Portadown, Ulster loyalism The 1641 rebellion first began in Ulster. The 1641 Rebellion. The warm clothes of the hated English [says Mr. Gardiner] would be a precious possession in the cold winter nights which were approaching. He soon converted the rabble into an army; and that army gave a good account of itself at Benburb and Clonmel. It relates the circumstances under which the great exodus to the New World began, the trials and tribulations faced by these tough American pioneers and the enduring influence they came to exert on the politics, education and religion of the country. What'… The outrages committed by the English were committed by disciplined armies, stimulated by authoritative commanders, and provoked or sanctioned by the English Government; 7. They did so to strengthen their hand in prospective negotiations with the king, Charles I, on issues relating to … The Irish Rebellion of 1641 came about because of the resentment felt by the Catholic Irish, both Gael and Old English, in regards to the loss of their lands to Protestant settlers from England and Scotland. This warfare went on during the reigns of Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth. Illustration showing 'propaganda' images from the 1641 rising by Catholic rebels of an alleged massacre of Protestants during the Irish rebellion known as the Depositions. The Scotch-Irish in America tells the story of how the hardy breed of men and women, who in America came to be known as the ‘Scotch-Irish’, was forged in the north of Ireland during the seventeenth century. Propagandists, politicians and historians have all exploited the depositions at different times. He resolved to make honourable terms with the vanquished. 1641 Depositions. 'Probably,' Says Mr. Lecky, 'by far the greater number of those who were represented as massacred, died in this manner from cold, want, and hardships.'. The plan, to be executed on 23 October 1641, (Roman Catholic Feast of St.Ignatius of Loyola) was to use surprise rather than military force to take their objectives and to then issue their demands, in expectation of support fro… The spirit in which the Commissioners — Mr. Jones, Dean of Kilmore, and several other Protestant clergymen — set to work may be gathered from the statement of the objects of the Commission: 'To keep up the memory of the outrages committed by the Irish to posterity.' This was notably the case in the County Cavan, where Philip O'Reilly led the insurgents. An English officer, a friend of the Viceroy [says Mr. Lecky], invited seventeen Irish gentlemen to supper, and when they rose from the table had them all stabbed. This, of course, is not the case. On the 30th of November, Ormonde wrote to the King, 'the rebels are in great numbers, for the most part merely armed with such weapons as would rather show them to be a tumultuary rabble, than an army.' The land that was a little before like a garden of Eden was speedily turned into a desolate wilderness. The slaughter of Irishmen was looked upon as literally the slaughter of wild beasts. The settlers were left to shift for themselves as the natives had been left to shift for themselves, the natives recovered their own. 'The soldiers,' says Carte, 'in executing the orders of the Lords Justices murdered all persons promiscuously, not sparing the women, and sometimes not children.' The warfare of extermination was carried on in the North as well as in the South. He found he could not destroy them, and he made peace with Sir Brian O'Neil. Political and cultural differences between the native Irish and the Old English are widely considered to have been a primary cause of the failure of the rebels to press home their military advantage. They were met by the English settlers — the Cosbeys, the Hovedens, the Hartpools. Year after year, over a great part of all Ireland, all means of human subsistence was destroyed, no quarter was given to prisoners who surrendered, and the whole population was skilfully and steadily starved to death. Mr. Lecky reminds us, that even Sir Phelim O'Neil — the one blameworthy rebel leader — 'had the reputation much more of a weak and incapable than of a deliberately cruel man.' The Rebellion of 1641--generally called a 'massacre'--was undoubtedly a struggle on the part of the exiled nobles and clergy and the evicted peasants to get possession of their estates and farms, which had been occupied … It is certain [says Mr. Lecky] that there was nothing resembling a massacre in the first days of the Rebellion. By John Dorney. Out of the whole 2,000, 100 perished on the way, from cold and hunger, the rest reached Dublin safely, but miserably. Lord Caulfield was shot at Clongorth Castle by one of the 'rabble;' but O'Neil was absent at the time, and knew nothing of the business. Behind them [says Mr. Lecky] lay the maddening recollections of the wars of Elizabeth, when their parents had been starved by thousands, when unresisting peasants, when women, when children, had been deliberately massacred, and when no quarter had been given to the prisoners. His lurid picture of the massacre in October 1641 is very much calculated to evoke such feelings as anger, hatred and indignation against the Catholic rebels. It is probable [says Mr. Lecky, speaking of the charges brought against Phelim O'Neil] that these crimes [the murder of English persons] were exaggerated, and it is a remarkable and a significant fact that, when Owen Roe O'Neil assumed the command in July, 1642, he found English prisoners alive in [Phelim's] camp. A fierce struggle followed. He had strong prejudices against the Irish and the Catholics. The Irish, apparently, desired to have no quarrel with them. Sir Charles Coote, St. Leger, Sir F. Hamilton, Sir William Parsons, Sir Arthur Loftus carried fire and sword throughout the country, butchering indiscriminately guilty and innocent, men, women, and children. On the termination of the struggle Brian invited Essex to his castle.
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