If you would like to post a comment and need instructions click here. Johann Heinrich Albert Kropf - German Missionary via Carol Hardijzer. [1] Places Amalienstein, a Mission Station in the Western Cape; Anhalt-Schmidt, a Mission Station in Little Karoo; Botshebelo Township, near Middleburg; General Galleries. He passed away in Pinetown on 30 September 1944 (Aged 75). He is conducting research on South African based photographers from before 1910. 4) Eduard Kratzenstein (Dr.) (1823 – 1896). He passed away in Boksburg on 16 August 1924 (Aged 68). [1][2], It was a successor organisation, in Berlin, to the missionary training efforts of Pastor Johannes Jaenicke [de] (of the Bohemian-Lutheran congregation in Berlin) which had prepared missionaries since 1800 for work with other missionary societies including the London Missionary Society.[3]. German Embassy in South Africa. Hence the Society’s missionaries were often at the forefront of publishing Bible translations, dictionaries and grammars in indigenous languages. Van der Heyden, U. The missionaries Posselt and Güldenpfennig founded the first BMS station in Natal during 1847 and named it Emmaus. Office Hours: Please see official website Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. All the photographs of the missionaries included in this article were taken in Berlin, Germany. (1999). & Boshoff, W (2015). It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. The 31 images contained in the album are mainly of missionaries who did duty in South Africa (12 images), East Africa (6 images) & China (3 images). On the one hand they were driven by a strong desire to genuinely serve humanity and bring about material and social changes which would improve its quality of life. The areas of German South West Africa (now Namibia) were formally … The probability exists that some of the remaining images without inscriptions could also have been South African based missionaries. His first visit was between 17 September 1866 and 26 September 1867 during which he was critical of how the white colonists treated their black staff or the local population. Hermann Theodor Wangemann as illustrating traveller : Holy Land drawings from Egypt and Palestine, 1867, Wikipedia.org (Hermann Theodor Wangemann). The role that their wives played (for those who married), has certainly been underestimated in that very little has been captured in literature about their roles at mission stations. The considerable contribution of St John’s College to Medicine. Embassy of Germany in Pretoria, South Africa The EmbassyPage for Germany's embassy in Pretoria has updated and verified contact details for the mission, including address, telephone number, fax number and email address, as well as information about the embassy's website and social media presence. Hoffman was born in Germany on 2 August 1868 and arrived in South Africa during 1894. It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. In 1885 on 1 September, as a result of his enthusiastic articles in the German Catholic press, five young German women travelled to South Africa to join his missionary work. Zoellner, L. & Heese, J.A. Missionaries Alexander Merensky and Heinrich Grützner started work in the north eastern part of the South African Republic in 1860, their first station being at Gerlachshoop. Much More than a Mafia: Mavericks, Mentors, and Medical Maestros. South Africa and Namibia. The BMS focused on providing schooling and bringing the gospel to people in their own language. He arrived in South Africa during 1897. Sadly, the author has no detail as to where the album originated from. The Berlin Mission started sending missionaries to South Africa in 1833. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. pp v-vi, Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea, List of Protestant missionary societies in China (1807–1953), Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Evangelische Kirche - Berlin Missionary Society, The Berlin Mission Society and Black Europeans: The cases of Klaus Kuhn, Jan Sekoto and Gerard Sekoto, Richard Miles: Motswana preacher "to the native tribes beyond the border, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berlin_Missionary_Society&oldid=994333139, Religious organizations established in 1824, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 04:34. Amongst the South African group of images, 10 missionaries have been identified and are presented in this article. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. Gottschling was born in Germany on 10 June 1856 and first arrived in South Africa during 1882. The German mission societies in South Africa included the Berlin Mission Society (which is the focus of this article), the Hermannsburg, the Moravian and Rhinish Mission Societies. [9], The Bethel Mission had established a missionary presence in Tanganyika, German East Africa, inviting the BMS in 1903 to take over a number of its stations. Unknown (Extracted January 2019). De Jong, C. (1992). If for any reason none appear click here for some troubleshooting tips. German South West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, though Germany did not officially recognise its loss of this territory until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.With a total area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time. Whilst much may have been published on most of the missionaries listed below, the primary purpose of this article is to share the images in the public domain. Kuhn qualified as a missionary (he also took lessons as a violinist) and, after becoming engaged to a German woman, Maria Brose, returned to Africa to the mission station Königsberg in Natal – where he married his bride in 1878. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. It is interesting that God chose a … On 23 September 1828 the missionary groups from Elberfeld, Barmen and Cologne (Köln) decided to amalgamate to form the Rhenish Mission Society. The establishment of Emmaus near present day Bergville in 1847 thus brought the first German missionaries to Natal. He was married to Anna Wiedermann who passed away on 21 November 1949. By contrast, the Moravians (Herrnhuter), who were the first German missionaries in southern Africa in 1737, sent their children to school in Germany. Fax Number: (+27) (0)12 427 8969. Few returned to Africa and thus German … Interestingly enough, at least eight of the ten men listed below remained in South Africa and passed away on Southern African soil. German-Herero conflict of 1904–07, the conflict between the Herero people and German colonial troops in German South West Africa in 1904 and the ensuing events of the next few years that resulted in the deaths of about 75 percent of the Herero population, considered by most scholars to be genocide.. Background. The drawings have a significant cultural-historical value in that they are accompanied by extensive written travelogues. THE ROLE OF MISSIONARIES The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. These photographs would more than likely have formed part of the Berlin Mission Station staff files. … The missionaries emphasized teachings of never questioning authority and accepting colonial rule as ordained by God. Other stations followed but on-going frontier conflict was a constraint. Hoffmann was among the most prolific 19th and 20th century authors employed by the Berlin Missionary Society. Disclaimer: Any views expressed by individuals and organisations are their own and do not in any way represent the views of The Heritage Portal. Next the focus shifted to the Eastern Cape where Ludwig Döhne started the first Berlin Mission Station in this troubled area during 1836. Ambassador: Walter Lindner - Ambassador. During the Frontier War of 1846 to 1847, these stations were abandoned and the missionaries sought safety in the neighbouring British colony of Natal. Early Christian missionaries. Does anyone have material on the Holpan Diamond Diggings? He got married to Auguste Marie Sandrock in South Africa on 12 October 1898, but she passed away during July 1914 whereafter he remarried Luise Henriette Brune during 1916. In later years, this was to become the largest Mission Society in the whole of Germany. Can anyone tell me where this building in East London is? She passed away in Stutterheim on 26 August 1929. The Berlin missionaries in South Africa, particularly Alexander Merensky, Knothe, Trümpelmann, Schwellnus and Eiselen, contributed to the study of African languages, producing Bible translations and hymnals. On the other hand they were possessed of a moral self-righteousness which led them to make hasty and uninformed … Let us know what is happening in your town or city. Assemblies of God World Missions 1445 N Boonville Avenue Springfield, MO 65802 417-862-2781 Interestingly, Kropf adds during the interview that he would not admit a polygamist to baptism or church privileges. [1] European missionaries to southern Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a strangely ambiguous role in the history and affairs of the region. It raises challenging questions about the nature of mission education legacies. contemporary Africa in such a way that they underline a critical shift in the epicenter of Christianity from the North to the South. Carol has one of the largest private photographic collections in South Africa. Marasas was born in Germany on 30 July 1869. Diplomatic representation of Germany. He was married to Martha Ney who passed away on 14 February 1949. It emerged from the German tradition of Pietism after 1815 and sent its first missionaries to South Africa in 1834. There were few positive reports in the early years, but it was especially active 1859-1914. Email: info@pretoria.diplo.de. Look at our full list of 1 Consular Offices that may make it easier to to seek out your nearest Embassy in South Africa. By 1900 there were more than thirty six stations and nearly 30,000 converts in the region. He passed away in Bergville on 2 June 1940 (aged almost 71). Apparently not adapting well to the Pomeranian climate, however, he returned early to the BMS station at Botshabelo as a teacher. He also acquired the adjacent… [1], The Berlin Missionary Society is still active today as an integral part of the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO). As mission director, he encouraged missionary effectiveness through tight organisation. Between worlds : German missionaries and the transition from mission to Bantu education in South Africa. Comments will load below. Between Worlds: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South Africa scrutinises the experience of a hitherto unexplored German mission society, probing the complexities and paradoxes of social change in education. The last area to be focused on by the BMS was the North-Eastern areas of South Africa where Merensky and Grützner established their first mission station during 1860 called Gerlachshoop. The publication in 1904 by the British and Foreign Bible Society of this combined effort was the first complete Bible in an indigenous language. The Berlin Mission Society (BMS) started sending missionaries to South Africa as early as 1833. It was on these travels that he recorded diary inscriptions with sketches. World War I cut off contact with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. About the author: Carol is passionate about South African Photographica – anything and everything to do with the history of photography. Elim was established in 1824 by German missionaries as a Moravian mission station Picture: Ayanda Ndamane/African News Agency (ANA) Hoffmann attempted to record African history and cultural practices with a view to preserving them for posterity by rendering orally presented knowledge into written and printed text. A collection of 106 drawings by Wangemann, originating from these journeys, was acquired by a South African museum in 1954. Other stations followed, but the continuous wars between the British and the Xhosa made missionary work very difficult. In his memory, the mission station Mp'hôme (Mphome) based in Haenertsburg (Limpopo Province today), was also renamed to Kratzenstein. In 1848 he returned to South Africa to assist in establishing a Mission Station but when the 8 th Frontier War broke out Tiyo went back to Scotland, where he was ordained in December 1856. It was especially strong in the Boer Republics. Van der Heyden, U (1); Van Heyden, U (2). When a Schengen visa is issued, the German Missions in South Africa cannot foresee that the booked accommodation will still be open at the time of arrival in Germany. He arrived in South Africa during 1896 and passed away in Zimbabwe on 23 January 1924 (aged almost 56). For example, a cross-denominational council of missionaries was created at a 1918 conference in Kenya. The Wangemann collection is currently curated by the Ditsong National Museum of Cultural History in Pretoria. New York: Phelps-Stokes Fund. Please do not use these photos without permission from the copyright holder. The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. They had a vocation to the religious life, and were eager to have a specific common rule of life. He passed away in Pietersburg on 15 September 1962 (Aged 94). Included amongst the batch of photographs were images of two unidentified females, who may have been married to one of the men mentioned above. Powe, K. & van der Heyden, U. Upon arriving in the southern Free State, and on advice from the London Mission Society’s G.A. If there is no additional booking confirmation, the traveler may be denied entry by the German Federal Police. Missionary work during the 1800s and early 1900s was clearly a very male dominated field. He travelled before photography became the standard means of recording journeys of this nature. Landbeskrywing van F.H. BETWEEN WORLDS: German Missionaries and the Transition from Mission to Bantu Education in South AfricaLinda ChisholmWits University Press Mission schools have a mixed reputation in former colonies. In southern Africa most of the leaders who participated in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries. [2] However, from 1962 it began granting independence to its mission churches which, in time, became amalgamated with other Lutheran mission churches in the region and formed the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa. This mission station did not get off to a good start, mainly due to the local population, the Korannas drifting off. He added that during 1881, he had about 250 active Christians at the mission station. Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese. He not only collects anything relating to photography, but also extensively conducts research in this field. 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Taurat was born in Germany on 23 June 1868. He passed away in Stutterheim on 10 December 1910 (Aged almost 88). He first married Luise Wiedermann (who passed away some 4 years after their marriage). Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. Barry (around 1881), provides for some interesting reading. He remarried Clementine Katharina Kuhne. Merensky sought refuge amongst his Christian converts in the Middelburg district and founded the station at Botshabelo (“city of refuge”) – which soon became the most important station of the Berlin Society in South Africa. R R ottcher Wineries’ lineage goes back to Muden near Greytown in KwaZulu-Natal, when a German missionary by the name Reverend Heinrich Rottcher and his family established the Sonnengold Orange Winery in 1916 – the first orang e-based wine-making recorded in South Africa – to supply communion wine for the mission. [8], Niklaas Koen, a “Khoikhoi”, was sent by the BMS to Germany in 1875 to further his education at a high school at Ducherow in Pomerania and afterwards to study for the ministry at the Berlin Missionshaus, where he adopted a German version of his name, Klaus Kuhn. Related Content. The Berlin Missionary Society was one of four German Protestant mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. Recently the author acquired a Victorian Photo album which contained a number of Carte-de-Visite format photographs of Berlin Mission Society missionaries, all attached to the German Lutheran church in Berlin (dating from between 1865 and late 1870s). The latter keeps well established ties with the Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea (est. Consulate of Germany in Port Elizabeth, South Africa The EmbassyPage for Germany's consulate in Port Elizabeth has updated and verified contact details for the mission, including address, telephone number, fax number and email address, as well as information about the … Kropf attributes the slow growth of the mission population to the station being destroyed twice (during 1846 and 1851), resulting in membership scattering and the mission needing to commence anew after each of these destructions. Paul the Apostle: One of the greatest missionaries of all times. Dietrich was born in Germany on 3 February 1868. [7], The BMS also sent workers to China in 1869 during the late Qing Dynasty, but it was not before 1882 that the Society officially declared Canton as its mission field, inheriting a station of the Rhenish Mission. (www.safrika.org/berlin). The Germany Embassy in Pretoria - South Africa. In southern Africa most of the leaders who participated in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries. Missionaries saw the voyages to Africa by their governments as an opportunity for them to spread the teaching of the Christian faith. Many questions arise around the existence of the album. It proved unable to speak and act decisively against injustice and racial discrimination and was disbanded in 1972.[5]. Fortunately, research by both German and Missionary historians has resulted in sufficient information being recorded on most of the missionaries, which makes the sharing of the images more impactful. Missionary settlement in Southern Africa 1800-1925. [3] There were few positive reports in the early years, but it was especially active 1859-1914. He wrote a system of regulations addressing fundamental questions of missionary work, the 1881 Missionsordnung der Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden zu Berlin.[4]. Jones, T.J. (1922) Education in Africa: A Study of West, South, and Equatorial Africa by the African Education Commission, under the auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and Foreign Mission Societies of North America and Europe. The missionaries emphasized teachings of never questioning authority and accepting colonial rule as ordained by God. The Society supported work in South Africa, China and East Africa. Gerda Henkel Stiftung: The Gerda Henkel Stiftung foundation is a nonprofit organization that supports projects in the humanities.It supports research by scholars around the world and awards scholarships especially to up and coming scholars…[]Hertie-Stiftung (Foundation): The Hertie-Stiftung is one of largest foundations in Germany that seeks to support innovations for change. (Extracted January 2019). Windisch was born in Germany on 12 April 1870. Wangemenn was born on 27 March 1818 in Wilsnack and passed away in Berlin on 18 June 1894 aged 76. He arrived in South Africa during 1894 and passed away in Potchefstroom on 29 August 1944 (Aged 74). There were unsuccessful early attempts to evangelise the Swazi and in Sekhukhuneland. Although the Church Missionary Society began in England, two German Lutherans sailed for Africa in 1804 as the society’s first missionaries. Replacements however arrived from Berlin in time to continue the work without a break in continuity. Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. He served as a missionary in South Africa for some 60 years. Missionaries with ties to Berlin had been working there with the London Missionary Society and Rhenish Missionary Society, making South Africa an obvious choice, with the initial objective being to set up a mission to the Tswana. 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