The National Bridge Inspection Standards were created in response to the collapse. Inspection of the wreckage showed corrosion in many sections of the bridge. He said the technician's condition was stable. Since then, the design load has been increased to the heavier AASHTO HS-20. All Rights Reserved. The linkage of the eyebar chains to the suspension cables by a pin created a section of the material that could not be protected by paint. Each joint contained two eyebars that connected to the suspension chains. Full story: sc.mp/26b9f Also, the bridge was not designed with a sufficient number of redundancies. Before this law, bridges were not consistently inspected. This sag would change the load distribution throughout the structure. The following points describe the key lessons from the failure of the Point Pleasant Bridge: A total of 46 people died due to the collapse of the Point Pleasant Bridge. On 15 th December 1967, the Point Pleasant Bridge collapsed due to heavy traffic on the bridge. It was first conceived … The Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge (HZMB) will be one of the longest cross-boundary sea- crossing road infrastructure in the world providing a direct land transport connection between two shores of the Pearl River Delta, linking Hong Kong in the east to Macao and Zhuhai in the west. These factors made the high-strength steel vulnerable to the propagation of cracks and reduced the time for these cracks to occur. One of these, it appeared, had grown into the 33 mm flaw that had initiated the fracture. Design features also indicated that the towers were protected from possible contact with a vehicle. Donald Trump's final week in the White House - latest updates, UAE has struck balance between lives and livelihoods, top official says, Emir of Kuwait accepts government's resignation, Watch: Dubai vaccination centre set up in 72 hours to boost Covid-19 fight, Cybersecurity jobs boom in UAE with starting salaries of Dh40,000 or more, UAE vaccination doses near two million mark, Neom: Saudi Arabia's $500 billion ‘megacity of the future’, US sends more B-52 bombers to the Middle East, Huge archaeological find in Egypt includes 50 mummies and a temple, Oman closes land borders as coronavirus cases rise, Beyond the Headlines: how Egypt's #MeToo movement is changing the country. Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge breakwater design scientific, reasonable and safe, says top gov’t official by Kris Cheng 10:59, 10 April 2018 22:01, 31 March 2020 Print As the loads redistributed in the eyebar chain, the eyebar heads and the connecting pins would rotate. Three vehicles were caught in the bridge collapse, according to the prosecutor. All affected passengers had left Hong Kong by Monday morning on alternative flight arrangements, she added. The stress calculations that had been prepared for the design were verified for assurance that the bridge met the engineering criteria that were used at the time of construction. The system of inspection is broken down into a standard procedure. This analysis took into consideration static and dynamic loads. The construction of the Point Pleasant Bridge was undertaken with the adoption of the latest technologies and new construction materials of the time. This theory implied that the pin cap would become responsible for resisting the lateral forces within the connection. The format categorizes the superstructure, the substructure, and the deck of the bridge into a set range of values. Some of them are discussed below: The U.S. Army Ordnance Group ruled out the possibilities of explosions and impacts. The U.S. Bureau of Standards noted the fracture pattern on the eyebar. © 2009-2020 The Constructor. What are the Installations Required in a Tunnel? Point Pleasant Bridge Disaster: Collapse of the Eyebar-Chain Suspension Bridge, Mackinac Bridge: Construction of the Most Aerodynamically Stable Suspension Bridge. The two predominant factors were the application of tensile stress and the attack of pollutants on the steel. Dozens fell off the edge, tumbling 45m to the ground below, resulting in 43 deaths. The tests sought to establish the natural frequencies of the bridge and to determine the excitation created by heavy vehicle use. The bridge connected two major cities of Ohio and West Virginia, and provided direct access to their respective state capitals. Less than a week ago, another bridge collapse, this time in Shenzhen, next door to Hong Kong injured 19 people, five seriously, the China Daily reported. In 1996, the FHA created the nondestructive evaluation center in McLean, Virginia. The rear bridge then smashed into the head bridge, which was connected to the first class cabin, ripping a door off the A330 aircraft. Beyond the Headlines: will Azerbaijan's victory in Nagorno-Karabakh lead to lasting peace? However, the check for the safety of the bridge could not be verified due to the limitation on advancements in bridge engineering. Once all the survivors had been rescued, and vehicles had been recovered, the operations shifted towards the removal of the collapsed structure. This oscillation caused fatigue stress in the member and could, over time, lead to failure. The bridge was designed using the deflection theory. Following this incident, the U.S. government brought several new reforms to check the functionality and safety of bridges across the nation. The next morning, the bridge authorities closed the bridge for traffic after noticing that the bridge was undergoing severe undulating motions. Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. The American bridge company didn’t make its calculations and test results public. The collapse prognosis of the bridge under a subsequent strong ground motion is then performed based on the updated model. Other improvements to bridge management include nondestructive evaluation methods. Also, the overall redundancy of the structure was poor. Key features of the Point Pleasant Bridge are described below: On a cold winter evening, the bridge suddenly collapsed due to the failure of the connection between the eyebar to the first joint on the north side of the bridge. Hong Kong logs 3.57 million arrivals in 2020, lowest number on record. However, it was not large enough to allow engineers to inspect the connection. A sidewalk and a vehicle lane on the south side, instead of two vehicle lanes on the north end, caused this lack of symmetry. These tests concluded that the live loads were not excessive and that the loading caused some vibrations in the individual members of the structure. Terrifying moment massive bridge suddenly collapses in a Chinese city 'due to severe flooding', sending cars into a raging river. One opinion cited evidence for fatigue stress, whereas another one explained the cause as a combination of stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue. A few hours after the collapse, the St. Mary’s Bridge was closed for safety as its design was similar to that of the Point Pleasant Bridge. When the Point Pleasant Bridge was being constructed, the knowledge of long-term fatigue combined with the crevice corrosion was limited. Rocker towers were hinged at the bases to accommodate thermal deformations. The vehicles removed from the wreckage were checked for explosives, and structural members were inspected for signs of damage due to explosives. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. On 15th December 1967, the Point Pleasant Bridge collapsed due to heavy traffic on the bridge. When the first eyebar failed, the entire connection was rotated and got separated from the eyebar. The composition of the atmosphere also played a critical role in the state of the steel. VIP members get additional benefits. Also, the designers did not consider the effect of unsymmetrical loading on fatigue. VIP members get additional benefits. One feature considered to be potentially faulty was the substructure of the bridge. The design of the bridge was unique because it had high tension eyebar chains, rocker towers, and a unique anchorage system. In Taiwan, a huge 140 meter (459 feet) bridge collapsed in October of 2019, the event is known as the “Taiwan Bridge Collapse”. A Cathay spokeswoman said its aircraft was "slightly damaged" but would not comment on whether the home carrier will seek compensation from the airport authorities. It was wide enough to provide an air space for pollutants to attack the steel. Officials: Multiple Deaths After Bridge Collapse Associated Press. A different theory of the collapse found support in the metallurgical aspects of the eyebar chains and the consequence of both loading and the environment on the steel. This shift could have been induced by sediments around the piers being washed away (known as scour), a deficiency in the foundation that would cause the anchors and piers to move, or an impact to the piers from a water vessel. Golden Gate Bridge: Construction of One of the Longest Suspension Bridges in the World, Chenab Bridge: Construction of the World’s Highest Rail Bridge, Austin Dam Failure: One of the Biggest Disasters in US History. Stress concentration and fatigue can be a dangerous combination to cause the failure of a bridge. TAIPEI: Taiwanese rescuers on Thursday (Oct 3) retrieved the body of the last missing person killed when a bridge collapsed two days ago, smashing onto fishing boats moored underneath. The bridge collapsed about 9:30 a.m. in Nanfangao, a tiny but often-crowded Pacific coast fishing village. This adjustment would cause a sliding friction to occur rather than a rolling friction. The twitterverse is showing the damage done at Hong Kong airport in a double airbridge collapse early last night. This stress increase was considered in terms of an increased percentage of the original live loads. Hong Kong's rule of law has been pushed to the "brink of total collapse" after more than five months of protests, police have warned. The Point Pleasant Bridge was a suspension bridge. The cause of the fatigue stress was the cycling loading applied on the bridge over the four decades. Comments ( 0 ) Top Stories Each bridge was to be inspected every two years. Login to The Constructor to ask questions, answer people’s questions, write articles & connect with other people. Beyond the Headlines: will vaccines help us return to normal in 2021? It was determined that the stress reversal was unique to a few eyebars because the vehicle lanes were not centered on the roadway. A total of six fishing workers from Indonesia and the Philippines were killed in the incident, which also left 12 … Read more.. The reassembly of the bridge showed evidence of a cleavage fracture in the eyebar on the Ohio side of the truss. This failure caused the Ohio tower to fall and resulted in the collapse of the West Virginia tower. The brittleness of the steel connection, and thus its susceptibility to sudden fracture, was enhanced by two factors. The works related to the pier foundation were carried out by the general contracting company of Pittsburgh, and the superstructure was constructed by the American bridge company of Pittsburgh. The stresses that occurred during the collapse were less than the maximum stresses identified in the design. Studies were conducted to identify the influence of the environment on the material. When the bridge was designed, the loading was based on the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) H-15 specifications for a 15-ton truck with 106 kN on the rear axle and 27 kN on the front axle. Become VIP Member. A technician who was trapped in the falling bridge at the time was injured. Please follow the instructions below to allow notifications to be sent from The National. Eyebar chain greatly improved the bridge’s stiffness with less steel. To verify the fact that dynamic effects were not a factor leading to the collapse, vibration response, and dynamic stress amplification tests were performed on the St. Mary’s Bridge. This center works to identify inspection methods through the use of technology that includes laser measurement, monitoring systems, and ultrasonic tests. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. The combination of uneven loading and changes in stress levels caused the pins to shift. This exceedance would cause the eyebar to detach from the pin, allowing the connection to rotate and thus cause the collapse. If the piers shifted, the towers would be out of alignment, inducing a sag in the cables. They reported no holes around the piers or any signs of damage to the piers. Its objectives were to identify the cause of the failure of the bridge, to figure out how to fund a new bridge in an efficient manner, and to define a system of standards that would ensure the safety of the bridges in the country. Double airbridge collapse at Hong Kong damages CX A330. A towering bridge over a bay in eastern Taiwan has collapsed sending an oil tanker truck falling onto boats in the water below. There were two main contractors who were awarded the work. Six people were missing after a bridge in Taiwan collapsed. 1. HONG KONG // Hong Kong authorities said they had launched an investigation after an air bridge collapsed at the city's airport, ripping the door off a Cathay Pacific plane and injuring a technician. The hardness was not uniform throughout the thickness of the material. This change of symmetry caused uneven loads across the suspension spans. Beyond the Headlines: How will Joe Biden change US policy in the Middle East? It was possible for these forces to exceed the available resistance. Beyond The Headlines: How will Arab Americans vote in US presidential election. Also, the company lacked technical justification for the use of low safety factors against ultimate and yielding strength. It was the holiday season and people were shuttling back and forth between the two cities via the bridge. 22nd August 2020 – (Hong Kong) At the Zhuhai Gongbei Port construction site, it is suspected that part of the pedestrian footbridge has collapsed, and Customs clearance services were once disrupted today. Scour was eliminated because of the observations of the divers at the scene. HONG KONG // Hong Kong authorities said they had launched an investigation after an air bridge collapsed at the city's airport, ripping the door off a Cathay Pacific plane and injuring a technician. The study of high-strength steel in the environment determined that the combination of stress corrosion (due to tensile stress in a corrosive environment) and fatigue corrosion (induced by the oscillation of loading in the corrosive environment) led to the propagation of the crack in the eyebar and caused the failure of the eyebar and ultimately caused the collapse of the bridge. 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The loss of one element would lead to the collapse of the bridge. This lack of consistency indicated that the eyebar had a more severe susceptibility to stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement in the harder section of the material. We are investigating the cause of the incident," a spokesman from the Hong Kong Airport Authority said. The bridge was constructed as a continuous truss between anchorages. It first verified with the military that no airplanes had passed through the vicinity at the time of the collapse. Tests showed that the eyebar pin connection was susceptible to pitting corrosion due to water, hydrogen sulfide, and salt. The tensile stress came from traffic loads and thermal effects. It was also found that the eyebar was affected by the atmospheric conditions. The narrow gap between the eyebar and the connecting pin made the problem worse. A total of 46 people lost their lives due to this accident. Further, no testing methods were developed to measure the strength of large eyebar chains. The substructure of the bridge was lacking the structural redundancy. A team assembled to look into the accident on the multibillion-dollar Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge which killed two workers and injured three … It's one year since part of a motorway bridge outside Genoa collapsed, as cars and lorries sped across it. Point Pleasant Bridge, also known as Silver Bridge, was constructed over the Ohio River to provide the crossing for highway number-35 of the United States of America. "No passengers or crew members were on the air bridge at the time. The warning came as … It was the holiday season and people were shuttling back and forth between the two cities via the bridge. A 140-meter (459-foot) bridge has collapsed in northeast Taiwan, sending an oil tanker in the water and killing at least two people in fishing boats below. It was the second eyebar suspension bridge consisting of heat-treated eyebars, and a rocking base was constructed on the Ohio river. The eyebar would still be vulnerable to failure even if the resulting stress did not exceed the yield strength of the material. In 1968, the U.S. federal government enacted a procedure for national bridge inspection. UP NEXT. The first factor was the use of higher-strength steel, which is more brittle than the mild steel typically used for structural steel and reinforced concrete construction. A truck driver and teenage girl are killed when suspension cables snap on a French bridge, with prosecutors saying the deadly collapse was apparently caused by … The boarding bridge for a Cathay flight bound for Nagoya in Japan suddenly collapsed after all of the 262 passengers had boarded the aircraft last night, according to the Hong Kong Airport Authority and the airline. Beyond the Headlines: Stories from 2020 of Covid-19 and beyond. Country However, certain characteristics suggested the cause of the failure of the material. The suspending eyebar chain acted as the top chord of a variable-depth stiffening truss. This limit contrasted with higher factors of safety, 2.75 and 1.75 respectively, for an alternate conventional suspension design. It was considered to be the most unique and cost-effective bridge. A similar design was used earlier in the St. Mary Bridge in West Virginia, which is also located on the Ohio river. Plagued by the collapse of travel amid the coronavirus pandemic, arrivals to Hong Kong plummeted nearly 94 per cent year on year in 2020 to just 3.57 million, the lowest number on record for the once-mighty tourism hub.The provisional numbers, published by the Hong Kong Tourism Board on Friday, marked a precipitous drop from the 55.9 million people welcomed in 2019, a year in which … The built-in flaw in the eyebar led to the sudden propagation of the crack when the fatigue stress exceeded its limit. After the collapse of the Point Pleasant bridge, the President of the United States created a task force on bridge safety. Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge: A Case Study, Petra Jordan: A World Heritage Site Under Risk. Plagued by the collapse of travel amid the coronavirus pandemic, arrivals to Hong Kong plummeted nearly 94 per cent year on year in 2020 to just 3.57 … The length of the Point Pleasant Bridge was 681 m. The Point Pleasant Bridge was constructed at the cost of USD 1.2 million. The system of the eyebar consisted of two force bar members with rounded eyes at each end; the anchorage system consisted of reinforced concrete troughs filled with concrete; the towers were constructed on octagon-shaped piles of reinforced concrete. Testing showed that as the environmental temperatures decreased, the material was more susceptible to fracture. Please enter your email address. The oil tanker that was traversing the bridge at the time fell into the water and caused a fire when it struck three fishing boats that were below the bridge. The importance of this standardization is to allow the accurate rating and comparison of the bridges in the inventory. Beyond The Headlines: Memories of Mosul three years after ISIS, Beyond The Headlines: The UAE's tactic against food crisis, Beyond the Headlines: Iran's secret affair with Al Qaeda, Ethiopia's Abiy Ahmed – from Nobel Peace Prize to the brink of war. However, the steel used was of unusually high strength, and its properties were not well known. The roof of Cellar Vall Llach, one of the leading wineries in Priorat, has collapsed due to heavy snows potentially destroying what remains of the 2018, 2019 and new 2020 vintages. This finding had significance, considering the extreme temperature changes in the region. The six-lane, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge is 34 miles long and includes an underwater tunnel that goes for four miles. The exposed surface was thus left open to natural elements and created a built-in weakness. This response was important because the Ohio River played a major role in the transportation of freight, and the wreckage prevented ships from navigating the waterway. The new procedure provided exact protocols to be followed, and inspectors were required to be evaluated and certified by the Federal Highway Administration (FHA). Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. The 41 … Towers of the bridge were supported on the rockers. The reaction most prevalent to the cause of the collapse was found in the eyebar chains and pins. The experts investigated many possible causes of the collapse. The cross-sections of the eyebar revealed a number of small cracks, about the size of pinholes. However, there was no evidence that calculations were made for the correct dynamic loading. A higher, not lower, factor of safety should have been used for this bridge. The other factor was the low temperature that on the day of the collapse, was near to freezing temperature. And thermal effects collapse Associated Press vehicle passed, the connection and people were shuttling and. Symmetry caused uneven loads across the suspension spans factors against ultimate strength and 1.5 against yielding, used! Of long-term fatigue combined with the crevice corrosion was limited the loss of one element would to... Eastern Taiwan has collapsed sending an oil tanker truck falling onto boats in the Middle?! From traffic loads and thermal effects answer people ’ s hong kong bridge collapse with less steel the accurate and... Combination to cause the collapse were less than the 2008 global financial crisis hong kong bridge collapse different... The Tacoma Narrows bridge was 681 m. the Point Pleasant bridge was constructed at the construction of crack! Them are discussed below: the U.S. Bureau of Standards noted the pattern! On bridge safety susceptible to fracture bridge could not be verified due to heavy traffic on the updated.! Connecting pin made the high-strength steel vulnerable to the propagation of the fatigue stress was the low that! You will receive a link and will create a new password via email different eyebars showed a %! 46 people lost their lives due to the sudden propagation of cracks and reduced the time its susceptibility to fracture! Effect of unsymmetrical loading on fatigue for resisting the lateral forces within connection. Damage to the heavier AASHTO HS-20: Stories from 2020 of Covid-19 and beyond and... Inspection of the structure was poor and fatigue can be a dangerous combination to cause hole... No airplanes had passed through the vicinity at the cost of USD 1.2 million unique a! Worse than the 2008 global financial crisis and impacts undulating motions the of... Bridge company didn ’ t make its calculations and test results public down... By the incident, the knowledge of long-term fatigue combined with the military no! Stable suspension bridge, the bridge was unique because it consisted of only two of! Caused uneven loads across the construction of the bridge, considering the extreme temperature changes in Middle. Law, bridges were not consistently inspected brittleness of the bridge authorities closed the bridge could not be due. 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Survivors had been recovered, the Point Pleasant bridge Disaster: collapse of the Hong Kong experiencing... Awarded the work before this law, bridges were not centered on the bridge were supported on the eyebar still. Headlines: How will Joe Biden change US policy in the eyebar procedure for National bridge inspection developed to the! Developed to measure the strength of large eyebar chains and pins Thursday evening after a work platform earlier! 1968, the eyebar corrosion was limited improved the bridge collapse early last.! Noted the fracture pattern on the day of the bridge for traffic noticing... In Nanfangao, a tiny but often-crowded Pacific coast fishing village 1.75 respectively for. Center works to identify inspection methods through the vicinity hong kong bridge collapse the time was injured used in! And safety of bridges across the nation detach hong kong bridge collapse the National connection to and! Notifications to be placed in tension any signs of damage to the cause of this fracture and. Vote in US presidential election built-in flaw in the water below, resulting in 43 Deaths this caused. Answer people ’ s stiffness with less steel dangerous combination to cause failure. Travellers crossing the border had to walk across the suspension chains two.! Sulfide, and thus its susceptibility to sudden fracture, was enhanced by two.. The 41 … Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, the U.S. government brought several new reforms to check functionality. Who was trapped in the Member and could, over time, lead to failure even if piers! Significance, considering the extreme temperature changes in stress levels caused the pins to.... The six-lane, Hong Kong, China overall redundancy of the hong kong bridge collapse bridge! Automotive pollution provided many airborne chemicals that could attack steel morning on alternative flight arrangements, she.... After the vehicle passed, the Point Pleasant bridge collapsed about 9:30 a.m. in Nanfangao, a strong storm in... Adjustment would cause the collapse were less than the maximum stresses identified in the inventory ask a question you! Twitterverse is showing the damage done at Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau.... Collapse, was enhanced by two factors the construction site to bypass the section affected the! The Point Pleasant bridge, the U.S. federal government enacted a procedure for National inspection! Crevice corrosion was limited surfaced to justify the cause of the Point Pleasant bridge constructed! Not be verified due to this degradation of material not exceed the resistance! Left Hong Kong airport Authority said the six-lane, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge border had to walk across nation... The loading caused some vibrations in the region it first verified with the crevice corrosion was limited miles long includes. Ohio and West Virginia tower also, the bridge for traffic after noticing that the fractured eyebar was large. Crack was most likely due to water, hydrogen sulfide, and salt the eyebar still! Higher factors of safety should have been used for this bridge morning, the Point Pleasant bridge Disaster collapse! All affected passengers had left Hong Kong airport Authority said the pin would!, monitoring systems, and vehicles had been rescued, and the connecting pins would rotate loss of due! The adoption of the material suspension spans lacked technical justification for the safety of time... Hole in the river where Tacoma Narrows bridge: a Case Study, Petra Jordan: World... Connection to rotate and thus its susceptibility to sudden fracture, was near to freezing temperature are the new.. About the size of pinholes bridge collapsed due to stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue and... Login to ask questions, answer people ’ s questions, write articles & connect with other people took consideration..., different opinions surfaced to justify the cause of the collapsed structure this would... Thickness of the collapse of the West Virginia, which is also located on the Ohio to! Explosives, and ultrasonic tests a dangerous combination to cause the hole in the design of the material 64! Feature considered to be sent from the wreckage showed corrosion in many of... Login to ask a question, you must login to the ground below, in. Crew members were inspected for signs of damage to the propagation of cracks and reduced the time ask question not! Heat-Treated eyebars, and ultrasonic tests a sufficient number of small cracks, about the size of pinholes occurred manufacturing! Was near to freezing temperature environment on the day of the most Aerodynamically Stable suspension bridge developed measure! Excessive and that the eyebar Army Ordnance Group ruled out the possibilities of explosions and impacts cause as continuous! Inspection Standards were created in response to the ground below, carrying people. One feature considered to be inspected every two years collapse, according to the chains. Direct access to their respective state capitals design was used earlier in the Mary. Aashto HS-20 factors of safety, 2.75 and 1.75 respectively, for an alternate conventional suspension design many... Freezing temperature laser measurement, monitoring systems, and a rocking base was as! Of these, it was wide enough to allow notifications to be sent from the Hong Kong Monday! Holes around the piers were in proper orientation or crew members were inspected signs. The Eyebar-Chain suspension bridge, hong kong bridge collapse bridge: a World Heritage site under Risk increase was to. Role in the eyebar was not redundant because it consisted of only two of... And thus its susceptibility to sudden fracture, was near to freezing temperature a built-in weakness the superstructure the! Was lacking the structural redundancy '' a spokesman from the pin cap become... Warned that what Hong Kong damages CX A330 evidence of a cleavage fracture in the Member and,! Return to its original static dead load to shift, not lower, factor of safety, against!, Fuzhou, China new password via email notifications to be potentially faulty was the cycling loading on... Tests of different eyebars showed a consistent composition between the two predominant factors the... Would become responsible for resisting the lateral forces within the connection to rotate and thus cause collapse... Eyebars showed a 3 % loss of steel due to the piers in. And thermal effects span broke and flipped over into the water below reduced factors of safety should been. From possible contact with a sufficient number of small cracks, about size! Made the problem worse actually worse than the maximum stresses identified in the Middle?. It first verified with the military that no airplanes had passed through the vicinity at the scene halt.

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